PACSLAV was formed to promote the development of Slavic Studies in this region of the United States


Memorandum of Agreement

Ratified: May 1996

Table of Contents:

Member Institutions / Affiliated Institutions / Introduction / Collection Development / Acquisitions / Cataloging / Internet Access / Resource Sharing / Joint Actions / Organization / Key Staff


Acquisition Programs / Cataloging Programs / Scope of Online Catalogs

Member institutions:

Affiliated institutions:

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I. Introduction:

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Acknowledging the growing importance of collaborative and coordinated interinstitutional efforts in times of universally diminished library materials budgets, the directors, collection development officers, and Slavic area studies specialists at the libraries of these seven Pacific Coast universities agree to establish the Pacific Coast Slavic and East European Library Consortium, to be known in brief as the Pacific Coast Slavic Library Consortium or PACSLAV.

The purpose of this Consortium is to allow the participating libraries to:

  1. Provide adequate research support for their own institutions programs and for other institutions in the region;
  2. Maintain and enhance the research base of Slavic and East European collections in the West Coast region;
  3. Provide better access for each member library to resources held within the Consortium; and
  4. Share information on important professional issues.

Areas of coverage for the Consortium will include:

  1. Geographical: all Slavic European countries and regions, Hungary, Romania, Albania, and all newly independent states of the former Soviet Union;
  2. Chronological: no exclusions;
  3. Linguistic: materials in all languages of those countries and in all languages about those countries.
  4. Subjects: all areas in the humanities and social sciences, including
  5. government publications.
  6. Formats and media: no exclusions.

Areas of cooperation will include collection development, acquisitions, cataloging, preservation, document delivery, bibliographic control, and other appropriate technical service areas, for which member libraries are expected to commit institutional support adequate for facilitating the Consortiums objectives.

The primary means of communication for the Consortium will be its listserv (PACSLAV@LIBRARY.BERKELEY.EDU), which is maintained on a UC Berkeley server and has as its members the Slavic studies librarians of the participating and affiliated institutions.

Affiliated libraries may join with participating libraries in sharing information about acquisitions, collections, and access. Libraries with affiliate status will not normally share commitments to distributed collection development; participate in joint acquisitions, grant proposals, or bibliographic control projects; or have priority status in the Consortiums duplicate exchange.

II. Collection Development.

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A. Libraries consortial commitments may be for subjects in both Russian and non-Russian areas. Exceptions are Russian history, linguistics, and literature, which are at the core of all member institutions area studies programs. In consultation with the faculty and Chairs of their respective Russian and East European area studies programs and Departments of Slavic Languages and Literatures, the area studies librarians at each of the member libraries are to identify several such areas of particular programmatic interest to their institutions, to which they can reasonably make strong, ongoing collecting commitments. Choices about areas to be collected will be based on current strengths and should be sustainable for a 5-year period, but do not have to be permanent.

Commitments by one institution to develop a given subject or area are not meant to prevent other member libraries from developing similar collections if necessary. In the spirit of the University of California Libraries 1989 guidelines for collaborative collection development, these commitments are to be viewed not as prohibitions to other members, but as declarations of the Consortiums collective strengths.

Each library should project its own subject collecting commitments for a five-year period, i.e. for 1995-2000. Unforeseen changes in academic or library programs may require the renegotiation of parts of the consortial agreement.

B. In addition, participating librarians have developed a union conspectus showing the collecting intensity of each member institution for designated subject and geographic areas, and by implication the institutions that will be taking the consortial lead in those areas (see Appendix 4). The conspectus will be made available online for library staff and users as part of each member librarys Slavic and East European (S&EE) web site option for "Information about the Pacific Coast Slavic and East European Library Consortium" (see section V below).

C. The Consortium will compile a union list of holdings of S&EE serials that have been active since 1989. The union list will be made available on each librarys S&EE web site option for "Information about the...Consortium" (see Section V below). The serials list will include periodically updated holdings information to assist member libraries in making decisions on new serials selection or retrospective acquisitions, and it will be used by the member libraries as a critical resource in the event of serial cancellations, allowing for the retention of at least one active subscription per title within the Consortium.

D. The Consortium will coordinate its policies and collecting activities with those of the Center for Research Libraries.

III. Acquisitions.

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A. It is reasonably expected that the complexity of the Slavic and East European book market (e.g., availability of materials, pricing, and services) will remain in force for several more years. Consequently, some coordination of acquisition programs may benefit the Consortium members. To encourage the free exchange of acquisitions information, each member agrees to honor the confidentiality of information shared over PACSLAV, the Consortiums e-mail listserv. Appendix 1 provides descriptions of each member librarys Slavic and East European acquisitions program.

B. In some cases, two or more libraries of the Consortium may agree to cooperate in joint acquisitions arrangements of a temporary nature, such as buying trips on behalf of ones own and other consortial libraries, or arrangements to have materials destined for two or more consortial libraries shipped to a single destination and then distributed. Such arrangements may be made to circumvent poor, nonexistent, or prohibitively expensive postal service in such areas as the Russian Far East, Central Asia, or Macedonia; or to compensate for poorly-functioning exchange partners or vendors.

C. Consortial acquisition of electronic resources: the Consortium will investigate and pursue the possibility of jointly purchasing and networking such data bases.

D. Distributed acquisition of large microfilm sets: The Consortium will develop a plan to provide joint access to new and expensive microform and reprint collections (initially of $3,000 or more); it will develop desiderata lists for microfilm not yet held within the Consortium; and it will coordinate such acquisitions with the Slavic and East European Microform Project (SEEMP) to avoid duplicating existing or planned holdings at the Center for Research Libraries. Responsibility for purchasing microfilm sets or designated parts of sets will be negotiated among the Consortiums members. Members will inform the Consortium of their interest in or plans to purchase large sets, to announce the availability of the materials to all other members and forestall unnecessary duplicate outlays. News of the acquisition of large microfilm and reprint collections may be posted on a members S&EE Web site (see section IV).

E. Duplicate sharing: members of the consortium will devise a method for distributing S&EE duplicates not needed at one library to others that can make use of them.

IV. Cataloging procedures and priorities.

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A. Each librarys Technical Services should be kept apprised of local S&EE collecting priorities so that it can assign processing priorities accordingly; each member agrees to transmit a copy of this agreement to the appropriate Technical Services units at his/her institution. Members will have assurance that they will be able to find records promptly for distributed holdings either on one of the national bibliographic utilities or through remote access to the member librarys catalog. It is important that each member librarys cataloging procedures for S&EE materials be known to the group. Appendix 2 indicates the S&EE cataloging priorities and workflows at each member library; Appendix 3 provides information about the extent of online access to catalog records at each of the member libraries. Member libraries Technical Services units will be consulted and involved at all stages of any consortial projects in this category.

B. The Consortium will explore the possibility of coordinating priorities for cataloging specific geographic, language and subject areas.

C. The Consortium will explore the possibility of utilizing bibliographic records produced by foreign bibliographic institutions for its acquisition and cataloging purposes. Ways of sharing these records will be investigated.

D. The Consortium will explore over time the possible benefits of coordinated commercial outsourcing and exchange cataloging among consortial members.

E. Wherever possible, acquisitions records will be made available (either through OPACs or in-house systems) to members of the Consortium as soon as materials are ordered or acquired.

V. Access to information on the Consortium via the Internet.

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Public access to consortial information and catalogs: Each member library will develop a World Wide Web site devoted to S&EE library resources at that institution. Information available there may include descriptions of that librarys S&EE collections and particular strengths, lists of active S&EE newspaper subscriptions and newspaper backfiles on microfilm, periodic lists of newly acquired or newly cataloged monographs and/or serials, information on recent major acquisitions (e.g., large microfilm sets, manuscript collections, data bases, etc.), and a gateway to the librarys online public access catalog. In addition, each member librarys S&EE Web site will also include a gateway to the S&EE Web sites of all other member libraries of the Consortium and to a joint home page for the Consortium. One purpose of each librarys S&EE Web site will be to direct the librarys users as a second resort to its West Coast consortial partners in cases where the library itself cannot provide needed resources. The Consortiums and individual members home pages on the World Wide Web are expected to evolve together with Internet technology and to meet the Consortiums changing needs.

VI. Resource Sharing.

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Interlibrary Borrowing: All loans and copies between Consortium members will be charged at the existing rates maintained by each library. Those members that can will make an effort to provide priority lending to other members of the Consortium. Member libraries CDOs and Resource Sharing staff will investigate the options for more efficient settling of interlibrary borrowing accounts, including possible use of OCLCs Interlibrary Loan Fee Management Program to reduce billing costs.

VII. Joint actions.

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A. Joint grant proposals: Whenever appropriate, members of the Consortium will collaborate to obtain extra-institutional grant funds to support the Consortiums goals. Examples include projects to microfilm back runs of rare or unique newspaper or serial holdings, catalog unique monographs, complete retrospective conversion of Slavic materials, prepare bibliographical finding aids or data bases, digitize manuscripts and images, etc.

B. Preservation programs: whether through joint grant applications or coordination of institutional projects, the possibility of joint efforts to preserve collections will be pursued. This may include sharing materials to fill out incomplete sets or transferring what are out-of-scope materials at one library to another committed to collecting in a given area.

C. Development of academic projects: bibliographies, exhibitions, conferences.

D. The Consortium will explore the possibility of jointly archiving some electronic information sources, such as electronic journals, important data available through networks, etc.

VIII. Organization.

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A. The Consortium will have a Chair, elected by the member librarians for a term of 5 years, and a secretary, elected by the members for a term of 3 years. The Chair will be responsible for coordinating joint activities of the member librarians and will report to the Consortiums coordinating Collection Development Officer.

B. The Consortium will have a coordinating Collection Development Officer, preferably one affiliated with the same institution as the Chair and serving a concurrent 5-year term. In consultation with other member CDOs, the coordinating CDO will provide administrative guidance to the Consortium.

C. The Consortium should meet when needed, but no less than once each year. The preferred time and location of such a meeting is in conjunction with the conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS). Shortly after the yearly meeting the Consortiums Slavic specialists will compile a joint report on consortial activities during the previous year, to be submitted to their respective collection development officers. At other times during the year the Consortiums librarians will communicate over the PACSLAV listserv.

D. Evaluation of the Consortiums effectiveness will be an ongoing activity. Each librarian will contribute an assessment of the Consortiums contribution to realizing his/her librarys area studies needs, which will become part of the Chairs annual report. Under guidance of the Chair, the members will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the Consortium after 3 years (in spring 1999) to determine whether the program has been effective and whether it should be continued.

E. Institutions within the Western region may join this Consortium, provided they agree to the stipulations of this agreement and their inclusion is approved by consensus of the participating libraries (CDOs and Slavic librarians). Member libraries may withdraw from the Consortium by stating this intention to the librarians and CDOs of the remaining participating institutions at least six months before the intended date of withdrawal.

F. Librarians attending the first organizational meeting in Seattle (June 1995) have developed a detailed plan for implementing these proposals (Appendix 5), including target completion dates and apportioned responsibility for various tasks.

IX. Key Library Staff Within the Consortium

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Library Liaison

Collection Development Officer

Arizona State University

Michael Markiw 
Slavic/West European Specialist 
(480) 965-4611 

Jeanne Richardson, Collection Development Team Leader
(480) 965-5345

Stanford University

Karen Rondestvedt
Curator, Slavic & East European Collections

Assunta Pisani, Associate Director for Collections Development
(650) 725-1011

University of Arizona

Michael Brewer
Slavic Librarian
(520) 307-2771

Patricia Promis, Team Leader for Fine Arts & Humanities
(520) 621-6437

Unversity of British Columbia

Iza LaPonce
Humanities and Social Sciences Reference Librarian
(604) 822-5923

Janice Kreider, AUL Collections & Technical Services
(604) 822-2740

University of California, Berkeley

Allan Urbanic
Librarian for Slavic & East European Collections
(510) 643-1343

Alan Ritch, Associate University Librarian for Collection Development
(510) 642-3773

University of California, Los Angeles

Leon Ferder
Slavic/East European Bibliographer
(310) 825-1639

Cynthia J. Shelton, Associate University Librarian for Collections and Technical Services
(310) 825-1201

University of Oregon

Mischa Buczkowski
Slavic Librarian
(503) 346-1858

Faye A. Chadwell, Head of Collection Development
(541) 346-1819

University of Southern California

Ruth Wallach
Slavic Selector
(213) 740-5292

Lynn Sipe, Collection Development Officer
(213) 740-2929

University of Washington

Michael Biggins
Head, Slavic & East European Section
(206) 543-5588

Joyce Ogburn, Associate Director for Resource and Collections Management
(206) 685-2889


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Stanford U. : All selection of materials in vernacular and Western languages is made by the Curator for Slavic and East European Collections. The Curator is responsible for planning the budget and acquisition methods. Acquisition of Western materials is incorporated within the major Western language approval programs which are supplemented by title-by-title selection, especially for serials. The Curator is assisted by 0.5 FTE for administrative and exchange-related activities. The acquisition sources consist of purchases and exchanges, using a combination of firm orders and approval programs. Materials received on exchange are prepared for processing in the Curator's office with the assistance of a 0.8 FTE worker. Aside from this activity technical processes are not under the Curator's supervision but within the Technical Services units. 1.0 FTE places firm orders for all monographic materials in Slavic and EE languages and is responsible for maintenance of the acquisition file (claiming, cancelling). Another 1.0 FTE is responsible for ordering and receiving serials as well as for file maintenance. There is a 0.2 FTE student assistant. The equivalent of 1.0 FTE receives all materials in non-Western languages, regardless of source and method of acquisition. Order processing for Western-language materials requested by the Curator is incorporated into general Technical Services operations and the time involved cannot be determined.

UC Berkeley : Slavic selection and acquisitions processes are dispersed over several departments in the Library. The Slavic selector (1.o FTE) and a selector for Polish (0.15 FTE) along with a Slavic curatorial assistant (0.4 FTE) work in the Research Services/Collection Development Department. Additional staff are assigned to the Slavic area within the Acquisitions Department: an exchange assistant (0.5 FTE), an ordering and processing assistant (0.8 FTE), and a serials assistant (0.8 FTE). Materials sent to exchange partners are processed by a combination of the Slavic staff and the general Gifts and Exchange Department staff. Regular staffing is supplemented by student employees (about 15 hours per week). Staff described above select and process materials only in the vernacular languages. Subject selectors for English and Western European languages supplement the Slavic collection with materials in their language groups.

UCLA : A member of the Bibliographers Group, the Slavic Bibliographer has responsibility for selecting, ordering, and monitoring materials with Slavic and East European content in the humanities and social sciences in all languages and formats, whether acquired from commercial sources, through blanket orders or approval plans, library exchanges, or as gifts. The bibliographer manages the acquisition budget for both vernacular and Western-language area materials. Processing of orders and receipt of materials are handled by the Acquisitions Department/URL, with a 0.4 FTE paraprofessional staff assigned to vernacular materials. Western-language area materials enter the general Department workflow. The Serials Department/URL processes all orders and checks in Western-language area periodicals in its general workflow. Vernacular serials are checked in by a 0.125 FTE student assistants. The Department's Exchanges Assistant (0.5 FTE) manages area exchange programs and forwards bibliographer requests to appropriate exchange partners. The bibliographer directly supervises a 0.25 FTE student assistant supported by extramural funds.

U. of Hawaii : The Russian Bibliographer selects all materials in the vernacular and monitors English-language materials for all subjects in the humanities, social sciences, and some areas of the sciences. Materials are acquired from commercial sources, through blanket orders and exchanges, or as gifts. Processing of firm orders and their receipt is handled by the Acquisitions and/or Serials Departments. The Gifts and Exchange Department assists with the receipt and sending of materials. About half of a given year's intake is acquired via exchange. There is no support staff assigned to the Bibliographer or within the processing units.

U. of Washington : Most Slavic acquisitions activities are run out of the Libraries' Slavic and East European Section. The Section consists of: 1 Librarian, responsible for selection of materials and management of Slavic purchase and exchange acquisitions; 1 Library Technician responsible for pre-order searching and ordering of monographs from both vendors and exchange partners, processing gifts, and receipt and routing of firm-ordered and blanket monographs received on exchange; and 1 Exchange Assistant responsible for keeping exchange balances, ordering, receiving, checking in, and claiming exchange serials, receiving exchange monographs, and fulfilling orders of exchange partners. The Section's acquisitions responsibility is for materials in all languages concerning Slavic languages, linguistics, and literatures (PG), and in the vernacular languages concerning all other subjects. Subject selectors outside of the Slavic Section carry primary fiscal and selection responsibility for Western-language publications falling in LC classifications A-N and O-Z; the Slavic Section regularly supplements these holdings by acquiring Western-language materials that fall outside the scope of UW's Western approval plans, but cannot guarantee that holdings in Western languages will be at a level equal to the vernacular collections.

Appendix 1 to original Memorandum of Agreement, dated March 25, 1996. Retranscribed Oct. 11, 1999.


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Stanford U : Processing: In principle, when a book is received it is searched in OCLC and RLIN by the receiving staff. Any cataloging copy is accepted; however, the hit rate for newly published materials is low. Items without copy have their order records corrected with book in hand, are coded as received, and sent to a temporary shelving location (PUB), where they are organized by accession number and made available to patrons. In principle they are then researched after 18 to 24 months and, if copy is found, are sent to the copy cataloging section; if no copy is found, they are sent to professional catalogers for original cataloging. Available statistics for 1994: Staff consists of 2 FTE professional catalogers and 1 FTE copy and variant edition cataloger (paraprofessional). Throughput capacity per year is estimated at 6,700 titles. The acquisitions level is ca. 6,500-7,000 titles per year, including monographs, serials, and AV materials. The overall utility search hit rate, including new receipts and recalls from PUB, is about 80%. The estimated backlog (as of 3/3/95) representing the 1994 PUB consists of: 3,000 Russian titles; 360 titles in other Cyrillic alphabets; and 1,000 Roman alphabet Slavic titles. There is also an older backlog in PUB and a backlog of materials received as gifts. Items in Western languages acquired from "Slavic" funds are not included in these statistics.

UC Berkeley : Berkeley uses a variety of cataloging methods. Work is done by two professional catalogers (each does both monographs and serials) and one library assistant (monographic copy cataloging). The Slavic Collections also participate in the National Coordinated Cataloging Project (NCCO). Most items chosen for direct cataloging on OCLC are scientific materials. All materials received are given brief online records in the Acquisitions Department. They are then forwarded to the Catalog Department where they are held for 6-8 months prior to a first search in OCLC (exceptions: added volumes to monographic sets and periodicals). New serials and microforms are sent directly to the professional Slavic catalogers. The first search for copy is done on OCLC by the cataloging assistant. Materials not found are sent to the professional catalogers who search for copy on RLIN before attempting original cataloging. Original cataloging in the order of receipt is performed by the professional catalogers. This is done in the maintenance mode of GLADIS, the online catalog. Backlogs exist, but are not substantial. All records from OCLC and RLIN are entered in GLADIS and forwarded to MELVYL, the UC system online catalog. All records in recent years have been cross-loaded in OCLC and RLIN. Materials in languages for which the UC Berkeley Libraries has no special expertise are left online in brief format and assigned an accession number. Because of low demand they are kept in off-campus storage and can be paged from any circulation desk. They include materials in the Central Asian languages, Armenian, Georgian, etc.; however, if copy is found, they are fully cataloged. It is likely that these records will remain in this state for the foreseeable future. The library, as time permits, is attempting to upgrade serial bibliographic and holdings information and upgrade brief records for stored materials in the more common Slavic languages.

UCLA : Monographs: Titles received on exchange, gifts, and blanket/approval are searched for OCLC copy and given in-proess (IP) records on ORION (UCLA's integrated library system) by the Acquisitions Deparment/URL. When the Slavic Bibliographer does the searching, he will also search RLIN (via RCAT on MELVYL) if no OCLC copy is found. Those titles with LC or usable NUC copy go to the Slavic copycataloger if in the vernacular, or to the rapid cataloging unit if in other languages; those with no copy or poor NUC copy go into the catalog supplement collection, where they are retrievable by the public by the accession number given in the IP record. These are re-searched for OCLC copy in 2-3 years and then cataloged, either by the copycataloger or by the Slavic monographic cataloger. Titles firm-ordered receive IP records on ORION when ordered, which are updated when the materials are received. These then go into the above workflow. Any incoming materials can be designated for immediate minimal cataloging (minicat) and stored in the SRLF regional facility; these are searched for copy when received and are sent to the minimal catalogers for brief cataloging records (no subject access unless copy containing LCSH is found). Serials are ordered, received, and processed by the Serials Department and cataloged by the Continuations Cataloging units as a routine part of their general workflow and receive no special treatment.

U. of Hawaii : All cataloging is the responsibility of the Russian Bibliographer. The Library is in the process of reorganizing and at present there is no cataloging assistant for Russian materials. All Russian-language materials are received by the Russian Bibliographer and searched against OCLC (and in the near future, also RLIN). If no record is found, the books are shelved by title in an uncataloged backlog and searched again later. After reorganization the Library will have a descriptive cataloging unit and procedures for original descriptive cataloging of Russian materials will be devised for those staff members. Eventually greater volume and timeliness of cataloging is expected.

U. of Washington : The Cataloging Division processes from 300 to 500 SEE area monograph titles monthly, with no significant historical backlog. Items with LC or full-level member copy on OCLC are processed byt the Division's quick cataloging unit; items with incomplete member copy are generally cataloged within 1 to 2 months of receipt by a cataloging paraprofessional; and beginning in September 1995, monographs without OCLC copy (less than 10% of monographic receipts) will be assigned an accession number and made available to users in a small open-stack Slavic backlog, for which modified acquisitions records (author-title-imprint) will appear in UW's online public catalog. The Cataloging Division will pull materials from the open-stack backlog as needed by the original cataloger, with the goal of creating full-level records for all items in it. UW provides original monograph cataloging for receipts requested by UW patrons, and in the course of pulling books from the open-stack Slavic backlog. Staffing: 0.5 FTE professional cataloger conversant in all Slavic languages; 0.75 FTE paraprofessional cataloger conversant in Russian and Serbo-Croatian, with reading knowledge of other Slavic languages; 0.25 FTE paraprofessional with no Slavic language skills assigned to Slavic quick cataloging.

Appendix 2 to the original Memorandum of Agreement, dated March 25, 1996. Retranscribed Oct. 12, 1999.


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Stanford U. : Retrospective conversion for Slavic is complete and the collection is now fully online. The public catalog includes acquisitions records of materials on order, or just received but not yet cataloged. Serials are represented by titles and some incomplete bibliographic data, but no holdings. Acquisition and catalog records are created in NOTIS, and are available in Stanford's public catalog SOCRATES from the moment of their creation. Only fully cataloged materials are represented in RLIN. Stanford is not contributing records to OCLC, but since Stanford's retrospective conversion was performed by OCLC, the converted items are represented there.

UC Berkeley : All records for materials on order, in process, or brief or fully cataloged are contained in GLADIS (text version) and Pathfinder (web version). Records may remain designated as "on order" after they have been received and are being processed. Order information is attached to the bibliographic record and can be viewed by typing "order" at any time when the record is on screen (GLADIS only). Only full or brief records are sent to MELVYL. All serial records, full or brief, are in GLADIS, Pathfinder and MELVYL. Some of Berkeley's serials records also appear in RLIN and OCLC, but neither system contains a full list of titles. Holdings information varies depending on the branch housing the material. Recent receipt information cannot be accessed by the public but can be obtained through intermediation at all public service points. Retrospective conversion is complete.

UCLA : Cataloging is done online into OCLC, with records subsequently ftp'ed into ORION and MELVYL. (MELVYL contains UCLA records for fully cataloged materials--no in-process records). Retrospective conversion, done by OCLC or in-house, is complete for all PG's and most other classes. RLIN is used sparingly, if at all. Because of the option of minimal cataloging, there is hardly any Slavic original cataloging backlog.

U.. of Washington : Catalogs online on OCLC, inputting original records or adding its symbol to existing copy. Retrospective conversion is nearly complete for all cataloged monographic material. For serials, OCLC generally reflects only post-1978 holdings except in instances where an earlier existing record has been modified. By fall 1995 UW will complete a project to attach full holdings to all serial bibliographic records, including all Slavic serials received through purchase or exchange; this information will be available through UW's OPAC.

Appendix 3 to the original Memorandum of Agreement, dated March 25, 1996. Retranscribed Oct. 13, 1999.