II. Background InformationA. Trends in Higher EducationIII. Why Migrate?
B. Campus and Library TrendsA. Cost IssuesIV. Archiving and Permanent Preservation of Access
V. Collection Development and Electronic Formats - Guidelines
VI. Next Steps
The Library has begun a proactive movement toward an increasingly electronic environment. As we proceed in this direction, librarians need to actively communicate with their faculty about the coming changes, their benefits and implications, and any issues related to the provision of information resources in electronic format.II. Background Information
This document is intended to provide selectors with the contextual framework for their faculty interactions, and as such, should be used in conjunction with other documentation provided by IRC in support of collection development activities. Issues and needs of disciplines will, of course, vary. Selectors should build their own "scripts" or "outlines" when preparing to work with faculty as we move toward the electronic future.
A. Trends in Higher Education
B. Campus and Library Trends/Goals
For example, the University community is transforming how it delivers education and conducts research activities by integrating electronic resources into coursework and teaching, research, service, and other creative endeavors.
The Library is dedicated to transforming the way information is accessed and delivered. We have been making significant progress in our efforts to provide wider access to electronic full-text journal articles for library customers. These efforts reflect the Library's policies and plans for the Library's electronic collections (http://www.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/irdp/webfiles/policies.html ; http://www.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/sst/criteria.html; Policy for Selecting and Acquiring Electronic Products, etc.)
III. Why Migrate?
The cost of maintaining a print collection goes well beyond the cost of subscription. Libraries must also consider the costs involved in processing, cataloging, shelving, repair and maintenance of deteriorating collections, maintenance of appropriate environmental factors, etc. All of this is being done in recent years with fewer staff. Technical services staffing at the UA Library has been reduced and, in fact, overall staff numbers at the Library have decreased.
The assumption is that by moving to electronic formats, the processing, cataloging, shelving, repair, and maintenance costs, if not the subscription costs, will be reduced.
The Library is also seeking solutions to problems caused by reduced buying power and staffing through consortial arrangements for resource sharing, low-cost improvements of interlibrary loan and document delivery operations.
B. SpaceThe Library is facing a critical shortage of space for patrons, shelving, storage, and personnel. Every part of the Library is nearing its recommended shelving capacity and will exceed it in the next several years if collecting trends continue. We are at an average of 75% storage/shelving capacity for the entire Library collection and have current average collection growth rate of 5%. (For more details,see the Space Team Report at http://www.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/space/branches/main.htm)
Some libraries have chosen to deal with space issues by instituting remote storage. The costs of maintaining an off-site storage facility are substantial and include additional expenses, such as those associated with archiving, accessing, retrieving and delivering materials. There would be additional staff, maintenance and property costs for a remote storage building.
By moving proactively to electronic formats whenever possible, the Library will slow the collection growth rate.
IV. Archiving and Permanent Preservation of Access
Concerns abound over archiving, migration, and preservation of electronic resources for the long term.
The Library is committed to take advantage of electronic technology to provide broader, more extensive access, and to support integration of electronic resources and information technology into the curriculum.
For those materials available only in electronic format, the Library will make sure that there will be ongoing access to the collection via an agreement with the publisher or another partner such as AULC, CRL, or other consortial arrangements.
The Library will provide a range of access points to electronic resources, such as:
Wherever possible, the Library will work to provide reliable access to appropriate technology for using electronic resources within the Library. Downloading, exporting, and printing functions must be dependable and easy to use by customers.
- full cataloging and accessibility through the Sabio catalog;
- browsing of titles through the Sabio gateway;
- linkages and integration between resources - e.g. indexes and electronic journals, if available.
V. Collection Development and Electronic Formats - Guidelines
The following are provided as guidelines to selectors at the University of Arizona for developing and reviewing proposals and in understanding issues involved in negotiation of contracts with providers of electronic formats. Collection development policy and criteria must beapplied consistently across formats including electronic resources:
VI. Next Steps
1. Selectors will cancel print products when reliable electronic alternatives are available.
August - September 15, 1999 - Teams will discuss how they will approach this effort. IRC members are available to meet with teams to facilitate discussion and coordinate activities.
August - September 1999 - Selectors will review Project Muse titles. (Project Muse has been available for more than one year).
October 1999 - Selectors will submit decisions to TST to cancel duplicate format (either print or electronic) for Project Muse titles.
August - December 1999 - All selectors will actively promote new electronic journal collections and begin discussions on print-to-electronic migration with campus customers (faculty, staff and students).
January - May 2000 - Ongoing discussion with campus customers regarding print-to-electronic migration issues.
May - September 2000 - Selectors will draft lists of titles from aggregator packages for cancellation, with format to be cancelled specified.
September - October 2000 - Final decisions on journals included in aggregator packages. Cancellation of either print or electronic communicated to TST by late October 2000.
Attention: Selectors must review titles on these lists and engage
faculty in a dialogue about canceling these titles in the paper format.
Preference is given to retaining electronic subscriptions, both for reasons
of cost and space savings.
2. Selectors will remove print from shelves (where possible) as we migrate.
Selectors can view currently available journals, alphabetically or by subject at http://www.jstor.org/about/alpha.content.html. Subject topics include: African-American Studies, Anthropology, Asian Studies, Ecology, Economics, Education, Finance, History, Literature, Mathematics, Philosophy, Political Science, Population Studies, Sociology, Statistics.
JSTOR continues to add to the online collection as the "rolling window"
moves along. Selectors have an ongoing responsibility to keep up to date
with what new years of coverage have been added to the electronic product
and arrange for withdrawal each year. TST is responsible for developing
a mechanism for the withdrawal of these titles. IRC is responsible for
ensuring selectors are communicating with faculty and providing guidance
as necessary, and for working with TST to make sure the withdrawal process
In evaluating titles for online electronic-only access, selectors will involve faculty and students in evaluating these products. The Library is allowing a brief (1 year) period in which titles may be duplicated in order to ease the transition from print to electronic format. Selectors must reinforce with faculty the fact that this is a transition period only. Selectors should engage faculty in dialogues during the early Fall, and start canceling by late October 1999. The full review and final decisions should be complete by October 2000.